Roger Penrose, a mathematical physicist and Nobel-prize winner have presented a theory fifty years ago that energy can be harness from the space around the rotating black hole. This kind of space around the black hole is known as ergosphere in which if any matter falls in that region nothing can stop it from the black hole gravitational pull which has incredible speed and emits all kinds of energy. This theory is also known as Penrose process after which many theorists have worked on it to expand it.
Recently researchers from Columbia University with the support of NASA carried out a study in which they state that working around the rotating black holes gives you the better understanding of physics and also allows you to extract the energy from them.
Also another study conducted by Luca Comisso and Felipe A. Asenjo in which they said that energy can also be extracted by breaking the magnetic fields near its boundary where nothing can run away from the black hole’s gravitational pull.
As Comisso, a scientist at Columbia University tells that black holes are normally encircled by a hot soup of plasma particles with magnetic field. And when that magnetic field lines disconnect and try to reconnect at that time it will quicken the plasma particles to negative energies and in return it harness the large amount of black hole energy.
With the Penrose theory in 1971 Stephen Hawking also suggested its theory in 1974 in which it states that this energy release is due to quantum mechanical emission also known Hawking radiation. These theories are then followed by Roger Blandford and Roman Znajek in 1977 who suggested that the main reason behind the energy extraction is electromagnetic torque.
Comisso and Senjo in their research considered the key part of the Penrose process of how magnetic field breaks and again reconnect near the event horizon. Due to this it will convert the matter falling in into two flows of charged plasma in which one flow will be pushed against the black hole spin picking the negative energy.
Inside the boundary line around the black hole magnetic field reconnection takes place in extreme condition that results in plasma particles accelerated towards the velocities increasing the speed of the light. In other words, we can say that black hole will release the energy by gaining the negative mass energy particles.
The process of extracting massive amount of energy from black hole is the process of capturing high velocity between the captured and escaping plasma. The rate of plasma energization is calculated to 150 percent efficiency which is higher than the power plant operating on the earth.
To meet their energy needs it is possible for the future generation to look at the black holes although it may sound like a scientific fiction. The extraction has already started in the universe with number of available black holes which results in black hole flares that are detected from earth.
Humans will start surviving around the black hole millions of years from now without extracting energy from stars and nothing can put a stop to it if we look at the physics it’s just the technological problem which gets upgraded in the later years.
Meanwhile theory part of this process is expanding our knowledge about black holes, exotic physics is also giving his part in their area as it also equally important when efforts from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) are doing their best in capturing the first images of black holes.
To guide the future telescopes and the present one Event Horizon Telescope it is necessary to have the increased knowledge about the magnetic field reconnection around the black hole.